The traditional file-oriented approach to information processing for each application has a separate master file and its own set of personal files. An organization needs flow of information across these applications also, and this requires sharing of data, which is significantly lacking in the traditional approach. One major limitation of such a file-based approach is that the programs become dependent on the files and the files become dependent upon the programs.
Although such file-based approaches which came into being with the first commercial applications of computers did provide an increased efficiency in the data processing compared to earlier manual paper record-based systems as the demand for efficiency and speed increased the computer-based simple file oriented approach to information processing started suffering from the following significant disadvantages.
- Data redundancy and inconsistency
- Difficulty in accessing data
- Data isolation
- Integrity Problems
- Atomicity problems
- Security problems